| Last week our kitchen ceiling fan and light combo decided to stop working. We don’t like eating in the dark, so I was compelled to do some immediate troubleshooting. As an engineer with training in the workings of electricity I have a great respect for it. I’m well aware of potential hazards, and I took a necessary precaution before taking things apart and disconnecting wires. I made the long haul down the stairs to the basement, opened the circuit breaker in the electrical panel, and disabled the flow of electricity to the kitchen. My fears of potential electrocution having been eliminated, my only remaining fear was of tumbling off the ladder while servicing the fan.
Just as I took the precaution to disconnect the power supply before performing electrical maintenance in my home, workers in industrial settings must do the same, and a chief player in those scenarios is the motor overload relay discussed last week. It automatically shuts down electric motors when they become overheated. Let’s revisit that example now.
Our diagram in Figure 1 shows electric current flowing through the circuit by way of the red path. Even if this line were shut down, current would continue to flow along the path, because there is no means to disconnect the entire control system from the hot and neutral lines supplying power to it, that is, it is missing disconnect switches. Electric current will continue to pose a threat to workers were they to attempt a repair to the system. Now let’s see how we can eliminate potential hazards on the line.
In Figure 2 there is an obvious absence of the color red, indicating the lack of current within the system. We accomplished this with the addition of disconnect switches capable of isolating the motor control circuitry, thereby cutting off the hot and neutral lines of the electrical power supply and along with it the unencumbered flow of electricity.
These switches are basically the same as those seen in earlier diagrams in our series on industrial controls, the difference here is that the two switches are tied together by an insulated mechanical link. This link causes them to open and close at the same time. The switches are opened and closed manually via a handle. When the disconnect switches are both open electricity can’t flow and nothing can operate. Under these conditions there is no risk of a worker coming along and accidentally starting the conveyor motor.
To add yet another level of safety, disconnect switches are often tagged and locked once de-energized. This prevents workers from mistakenly closing them and starting the conveyor while maintenance is being performed. Brightly colored tags alert everyone that maintenance is taking place and the switches must not be closed. The lock that performs this safety function is actually a padlock. It’s inserted through a hole in the switch handle, making it impossible for anyone to flip the switch. Tags and locks are usually placed on switches by maintenance personnel before repairs begin and are removed when work is completed.
Now let’s see how our example control system looks in ladder diagram format.
Figure 3 shows a ladder diagram that includes disconnect switches, an emergency stop button, and the motor overload relay contacts. The insulated mechanical link between the two switches is represented by a dashed line. Oddly enough, engineering convention has it that the motor overload relay heater is typically not shown in a ladder diagram, therefore it is not represented here.
This wraps up our series on industrial control. Next time we’ll begin a discussion on mechanical clutches and how they’re used to transmit power from gasoline engines to tools like chainsaws and grass trimmers.
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