## Posts Tagged ‘cable’

### The Simple Pulley Gives Us a Lift

Friday, July 8th, 2016
 Lifting heavy objects into position always presents a challenge, whether it’s a mom lifting a toddler to her hip or a construction worker lifting work materials to great heights.   During my career as an engineering expert I’ve dealt with similar challenges, some of which were handled quite nicely by incorporating a simple pulley, which we introduced last time, into my design.   But sometimes, due to certain restrictions, the addition of a simple pulley into the works isn’t enough to get the job done.   We’ll take a look at one of the restrictions working against the use of a simple pulley today.     The simple pulley is believed to have first been used by the Greeks as far back as the 9th Century BC.   Back then it would have come in handy to lift cargo aboard ships, hoist sails on masts, and lift building materials high off the ground to supply workmen during the construction of temples and other marvels of ancient architecture.   In other words, pulleys literally saved ancient workers thousands of steps when it came to lifting things off the ground.     Let’s return to ancient times for a moment to get an understanding of the mechanics behind the workings of the simple pulley as put to use in a basic lifting application.   The Simple Pulley Gives Us a Lift         With a simple pulley, the tension force F1 applied to the rope by the pull-er is equal to the tension force F2 exerted upon the object, the pull-ee.   Once lifted off the ground, these forces are also equal to the object’s weight, W, which gravity works upon to return the lifted object to its previous position on the ground.  All these forces come to bear upon whatever’s doing the pulling.   If this pull-er happens to be a human, then the simple pulley’s effectiveness to lift things is directly proportionate to that human’s strength.   In the case of the toga’d figure above, that would be about 10 pounds.   It’s this caveat that limits the usefulness of the simple pulley when relying on human power alone, particularly when it’s employed to lift extremely heavy objects like marble pillars.   A single human isn’t up to the task.     Next time we’ll see how ancient Greeks overcame this limitation of the simple pulley by managing to cut in half the amount of brute force required to lift heavy objects. Copyright 2016 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________

### Simple Pulleys

Tuesday, June 28th, 2016
 Pulleys are simple devices with many uses, and as an engineering expert, I’ve often incorporated them into mechanical designs.   They’re used in machinery to transmit mechanical power from electric motors and engines to devices like blowers and pumps.   Another common usage for pulleys is to aid in lifting.   There are two types of pulleys for this purpose, simple or compound. We’ll start our discussion off by looking at the simple type today.     The simple pulley may have been an advanced application of the wheel.   It consists of a furrowed wheel on a shaft with some device for pulling threaded through it.   The pulley wheel supports and guides the movement of a rope, cable, or other pulling device around its circumference.   The pulling device runs between a pull-ee and pull-er, that is, the object to be moved and the source of pulling power, with the pulley itself situated somewhere between them. Simple Pulley     Pulleys are believed to have first been used by the Greeks as early as the 9th Century BC.   We’ll look into how they put them to use next time. Copyright 2016 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________