## Posts Tagged ‘continuity’

### The Principle of Continuity – What Goes In Must Come Out

Monday, April 2nd, 2018
 Last time we learned how cavitation degrades a centrifugal pump’s performance by restricting and reducing the water flow at the pump’s inlet where these destructive bubbles are formed.   Today we’ll see that despite the fact these cavitation bubbles return to a liquid water state further along in the pump’s high pressure section when they implode, the water flow within the pump remains the same.   This is true because of the engineering principle of continuity, which holds that the water flow rate within a pump or any other closed system remains the same throughout that system.   What goes in must come out.     Continuity has to do with the rate of water flowing through pipes, valves, and pumps within a plumbing system.   As water flows through a centrifugal pump, its flow rate is measured as the volume of water that moves past a certain point in the pump per unit of time.   Suppose for example that during one minute of elapsed time the volume of water flowing through at the inlet point is found to be five gallons.   This then becomes the system’s flow rate of 5 gallons per minute.   We’ll call this flow rate Q1.   The Principle of Continuity – What Goes In Must Come Out         The principle of continuity states that this flow rate Q1 must remain the same throughout the pump.   If this were not true, any observed difference in water volume would mean water is somehow either lost or created between the pump’s inlet and discharge.   This is an impossibility if the pump is an intact enclosed system, absent any other inlet points or leaks.   So according to the principle of continuity, Q1 must equal Q2, the flow rate at pump discharge.     When cavitation occurs at the pump’s inlet, Q1, these steam bubbles restrict water flowing into the pump.   Although these bubbles will later implode and return to a liquid water state further along the pump system, this change will not affect the flow rate of the water within the pump.   The flow rate established at intake will remain the same at pump discharge, Q2.     Next time we’ll see how cavitation in centrifugal pumps can be prevented. Copyright 2018 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________

### Cavitation Bubbles Degrade Pump Performance

Sunday, March 25th, 2018
 Previously we learned how cavitation bubbles cause noise, vibration, and damage to centrifugal pumps.   Today we’ll see how cavitation bubbles degrade pump performance in a centrifugal pump’s low pressure section. Cavitation Bubbles Degrade Pump Performance         During cavitation multitudes of tiny steam bubbles form and become suspended in the water that’s constantly flowing through a working centrifugal pump.   These bubbles decrease the density of the water because steam bubbles are lighter and occupy less space than liquid water.   This decrease in the water’s density causes the pump to be less efficient, because for any given amount of horsepower that’s conveyed to the pump’s impeller by an external power source, the pump’s ability to promote water discharge is compromised due to the bubbles.     As an example, let’s say that when the bubbles of cavitation form inside a pump, the pump’s water-bubble ratio is a mixture of 70 percent liquid water and 30 percent steam bubbles.   That’s a lot of bubbles, and they act to restrict water flowing through the pump’s inlet, reducing flow rate by 30 percent.     As water moves from the inlet towards the spinning impeller, all the steam bubbles implode in on themselves in the high pressure section of the pump.   They return once again to their liquid state and join the rest of the water flowing towards pump discharge, but despite this the pump’s flow rate remains reduced at the discharge.     We’ll find out why this is true next time when we discuss the engineering principle of continuity. opyright 2018 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________