## Posts Tagged ‘power fluctuations’

### Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part XIII

Monday, October 15th, 2012

Last time we learned how the Zener diode, an excellent negotiator of current, is involved in a constant trade off, exchanging current for voltage so as to maintain a constant voltage.  It draws as much current through it as is required to maintain a consistent voltage value across its leads, essentially acting as voltage regulator in order to protect sensitive electronic components from power fluctuations.

Now let’s revisit our example power supply circuit and see how Ohm’s Law is used to determine the amount of electric current, IPS, that flows from the unregulated power supply and why this is important to the function of the Zener diode.  See Figure 1.

## Figure 1

If you’ll recall, Ohm’s Law states that current flowing through a resistor is equal to the voltage across the resistor divided by its electrical resistance.  In our example that would be IPS flowing through to RLimiting.  In fact, the voltage across RLimiting is the difference between the voltages at each of its ends.

Applying this knowledge to our circuit, the voltage on one end is VUnregulated, while the voltage at the other is VZener.  According to Ohm’s Law the equation which allows us to solve for IPS is written as:

IPS = (VUnregulatedVZener) ÷ RLimiting

And if we have a situation where VUnregulated equals VZener , such as when the voltage of an unregulated power supply like a battery equals the Zener voltage of a Zener diode, then the equation becomes:

(VUnregulatedVZener ) = 0

And if this is true, then the following is also true:

IPS = 0 ÷ RLimiting = 0

In other words, this equation tells us that if VUnregulated is equal to VZener, then the current IPS will cease to flow from the unregulated portion of the circuit towards the Zener diode and the external supply circuit.  Put another way, in order for IPS to flow and the circuit to work, VUnregulated must be greater than VZener.

Next week we’ll continue our discussion and see why the resistor RLimiting is necessary in order to prevent the circuit from self destructing.

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