We’ve been working towards a general understanding of how gear trains work, and today we’ll solve a final piece of the puzzle when we identify how increased gear train torque is gained at the expense of gear train speed. Last time we developed a mathematical relationship between the torque, T, and the rotational speed, n, of the driving and driven gears in a simple gear train. This is represented by equation (8): T_{Driven} ÷ T_{Driving} = n_{Driving} ÷ n_{Driven}_{ } (8) For the purpose of our example we’ll assume that the driving gear is mounted to an electric motor shaft spinning at 100 revolutions per minute (RPM) and which produces 50 inch pounds of torque. Previous lab testing has determined that we require a torque of 100 inch pounds to properly run a piece of machinery that’s powered by the motor, and we’ve decided that the best way to get the required torque is not to employ a bigger, more powerful motor, but rather to install a gear train and manipulate its gear sizes until the desired torque is obtained. We know that using this approach will most likely affect the speed of our operation, and we want to determine how much speed will be compromised. So if the torque on the driven gear needs to be 100 inch pounds, then what will be the corresponding speed of the driven gear? To answer this question we’ll insert the numerical information we’ve been provided into equation (8). Doing so we arrive at the following: T_{Driven} ÷ T_{Driving} = n_{Driving} ÷ n_{Driven} (100 inch pounds) ÷ (50 inch pounds) = (100 RPM) ÷ n_{Driven} 2 = (100 RPM) ÷ n_{Driven} n_{Driven} = (100 RPM) ÷ 2 = 50 RPM This tells us that in order to meet our torque requirement of 100 inch pounds, the gear train motor’s speed must be reduced from 100 RPM to 50 RPM, which represents a 50% reduction in speed, hence the tradeoff. This wraps up our blog series on gears and gear trains. Next time we’ll move on to a new topic: Galileo’s experiments with falling objects.
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Posts Tagged ‘torque formula’
Determining the Gear Train Tradeoff of Torque vs. Speed, Part Three
Wednesday, August 27th, 2014Gear Train Torque Equations
Thursday, May 22nd, 2014
In our last blog we mathematically linked the driving and driven gear Force vectors to arrive at a single common vector F, known as the resultant Force vector. This simplification allows us to achieve common ground between F and the two Distance vectors of our driving and driven gears, represented as D_{1} and D_{2}. We can then use this commonality to develop individual torque equations for both gears in the train. In this illustration we clearly see that the Force vector, F, is at a 90º angle to the two Distance vectors, D_{1} and D_{2}. Let’s see why this angular relationship between them is crucial to the development of torque calculations. First a review of the basic torque formula, presented in a previous blog, Torque = Distance × Force × sin(ϴ) By inserting D_{1}, F, and ϴ = 90º into this formula we arrive at the torque calculation, T_{1 }, for the driving gear in our gear train: T_{1} = D_{1} × F × sin(90º) From a previous blog in this series we know that sin(90º) = 1, so it becomes, T_{1} = D_{1} × F By inserting D_{2}, F, and ϴ = 90º into the torque formula, we arrive at the torque calculation, T_{2 }, for the driven gear: T_{2} = D_{2} × F × sin(90º) T_{2} = D_{2} × F × 1 T_{2} = D_{2} × F Next week we’ll combine these two equations relative to F, the common link between them, and obtain a single equation equating the torques and pitch circle radii of the driving and driven gears in the gear train. _______________________________________ 
Torque and Force
Tuesday, April 29th, 2014
We’ve been discussing torque and how it enables more power to be available to applications such as loosening tight nuts with a wrench. Now we’ll see how those same principles apply to another application, a simple gear train. To review, the torque formula is, Torque = Distance × Force × sin(ϴ) where, Distance and Force are vector magnitudes and ϴ is the angle formed between them. Referring to the gear train illustration above, we see that Force and Distance vectors are present, just as they had been in our previous wrench/nut example. But instead of torque being created by way of force that’s applied to a wrench, things are reversed, and it’s the torque that creates the force. You see, in the wrench/nut example, the force applied to the wrench handle created torque on the nut. In our present gear train example, the torque applied to the motor shaft is created by an electric motor exerting pressure upon the motor shaft, which in turn exerts a force upon the driving gear teeth. The driving gear is also attached to this shaft, so torque causes the driving gear to rotate along with the motor. This rotation results in a force being exerted at the point where the teeth of the driving gear mesh with the teeth of the driven gear. In other words, in the wrench/nut example force created torque, while in the present example torque creates a force. The gear train has a pivot point, as there was in our wrench/nut example, but this time it’s located at the center of the motor shaft rather than at the center of a nut. The pivot point in both examples is where the action takes place. The motor’s shaft and driving gear rotate around it, just as the wrench jaws and handle rotated around the nut’s pivot point. In both examples, the Distance vectors extend out from the pivot points to meet up with the Force vector’s path. In the gear train example, this Force vector path is called a line of action, as introduced earlier in this blog series. This line of action passes through to the point where the driving and driven gear teeth mesh. The force acting upon that point causes the gears in the gear train to rotate, and as they turn mechanical energy is transferred from the motor to whatever machinery component is attached to the shaft of the driven gear. The powered component will then be able to perform useful work such as cutting lumber, mixing frosting for a cake, drilling holes in steel, or propelling vehicles. You will note that there is an angle ϴ which exists between the Distance and Force vectors. Since we have a pivot point, a Force vector, a Distance vector, and an angle ϴ, we are able to apply the torque formula to gear trains exactly as we did in our wrench/nut example. We can then use that formula to calculate how torque is transmitted between gears in the train. Next time we’ll examine the distance and force vectors in a simple gear train. _______________________________________ 
Torque Formula Symplified
Wednesday, April 2nd, 2014
Last time we introduced the mathematical formula for torque, which is most simply defined as a measure of how much a force acting upon an object causes that object to rotate around a pivot point. When manipulated, torque can produce a mechanical advantage in gear trains and tools, which we’ll see later. The formula is: Torque = Distance × Force × sin(ϴ) We learned that the factors Distance and Force are vectors, and sin(ϴ) is a trigonometric function of the angle ϴ which is formed between their two vectors. Let’s return to our wrench example and see how the torque formula works. Vectors have both a magnitude, that is, a size or extent, and a direction, and they are typically represented in physics and engineering problems by straight arrows. In our illustration the vector for distance is represented by an orange arrow, while the vector for force is represented by a red arrow. The orange distance vector has a magnitude of 6 inches, while the red force vector has a magnitude of 10 pounds, which is being supplied by the user’s arm muscle manipulating the nut. That muscle force follows a path from the arm to the pivot point located at the center of the nut, a distance of 6 inches. Vector arrows point in a specific direction, a direction which is indicative of the way in which the vectors’ magnitudes — in our case inches of distance vs. pounds of force — are oriented with respect to one another. In our illustration the orange distance vector points away from the pivot point. This is according to engineering and physics convention, which dictates that, when a force vector is acting upon an object to produce a torque, the distance vector always points from the object’s pivot point to the line of force associated with the force vector. The angle, ϴ, that is formed between the two vectors in our example is 90 degrees, as measured by any common, ordinary protractor. Next we must determine the trigonometric value for sin(ϴ). This is easily accomplished by simply entering “90” into our calculator, then pressing the sin button. An interesting fact is that when the angle ϴ ranges anywhere between 0 and 90 degrees, the values for sin(ϴ) always range between 0 and 1. To see this in action enter any number between 0 and 90 into a scientific calculator, then press the sin button. For our angle of 90 degrees we find that, sin(90) = 1 Thus the formula for torque in our example, because the sin(ϴ) is equal to 1, simply becomes the product of the magnitudes of the Distance and Force vectors: Torque = Distance × Force × sin(90) Torque = Distance × Force × 1 Torque = Distance × Force Next time we’ll insert numerical values into the equation and see how easily torque can be manipulated. _______________________________________ 