Posts Tagged ‘total resistance’

Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part V

Sunday, August 19th, 2012
     I’m sure you’ve seen the television commercials warning about harmful interactions between prescription medications.  By the same token electronic circuitry can also be adversely affected by certain combinations of electrical components, as we’ll discuss in today’s blog.

     Last time we looked at a circuit schematic containing an unregulated power supply.  This power supply was connected to an external supply circuit containing a number of components such as electric relays, buzzers, and lights.  Each of these components has a resistance factor, and combined they have a total resistance of RTotal.  We saw that when RTotal increases, the electrical current, I, decreases, and when RTotal decreases, I increases. 

     In contrast to this increasing/decreasing activity of the total resistance RTotal,  the fixed internal resistance of the unregulated power supply, RInternal, doesn’t fluctuate.  Let’s explore Ohm’s Law further to see how the static effect of RInternal  combines with the changing resistance present in RTotal to adversely affect the unregulated power supply output voltage, VOutput, causing it to fluctuate.

unregulated power supply circuit

Figure 1


     In Figure 1 RTotal and RInternal are operating in series, meaning they are connected together like sausage links.  In this configuration their two resistances add together as if they were one larger resistor.  

     Generally speaking, Ohm’s Law sets out that the current, I, flowing through a resistor in an electrical circuit equals the voltage, V, applied to the resistor divided by the resistance R, or:

I = V ÷ R

     In the case of the circuit represented in Figure 1, the resistors RInternal and RTotal are connected in series within the circuit, so their resistances must be added together to arrive at a total power demand.  Voltage is applied to these two resistors by the same voltage source, VDC.  So, for the circuit as a whole Ohm’s Law would be written as:

I = VDC ÷ (RInternal + RTotal)

     But, Ohm’s Law can also be applied to individual parts within the circuit, just as it can be applied to a single kitchen appliance being operated on a circuit shared with other appliances.  Let’s see how this applies to our example circuit’s RTotal next week.


Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part IV

Sunday, August 12th, 2012
     We’ve all popped a circuit breaker sometime in our lives, often the result of making too heavy of an electrical demand in a single area of the house to which that circuit is dedicated.  Like when you’re making dinner and operating the microwave, toaster, mixer, blender, food processor, and television simultaneously.  The demand for current on a single circuit can be taxed to the max, causing it to pop the circuit breaker and requiring that trip to the electrical box to flip the switch back on.

      Last time we began our discussion on unregulated power supplies and how they’re affected by power demands within their circuits.  Our schematic shows there are two basic aspects to the circuit, namely, its direct current source, or VDC,  and its internal resistance, RInternal.  Now let’s connect the power supply output terminals to an external supply circuit through which electrical current will be provided to peripheral devices, much like all the kitchen gadgets mentioned above.

Figure 1


     The external supply circuit shown in Figure 1 contains various electronic components, including electric relays, lights, and buzzers, and each of these has its own internal resistance.  Combined, their total resistance is RTotal, as shown in our schematic.

     Current, notated as I, circulates through the power supply, through the external supply circuit, and then returns back to the power supply.  The current circulates because the voltage, VDC, pushes it through the circuit like pressure from a pump causes water to flow through a pipe.

     RTotal and I can change, that is, increase or decrease, depending on how many components the microprocessor has turned on or off within the external supply circuit at any given time.  When RTotal increases, electrical current, I, decreases.  When RTotal decreases, electrical current I increases. 

     Next time we’ll continue our discussion on Ohm’s Law, introduced last week, to show how the static effect of RInternal  interacts with the changing resistance present in RTotal to adversely affect an unregulated power supply’s output voltage.