## Posts Tagged ‘AC’

### Further Inside the Wall Wart

Sunday, September 11th, 2011
 What do wall warts, aka AC wall adapters, and microwave ovens have in common?  Well, in previous blogs discussing microwaves, we saw how a microwave oven’s high voltage circuitry uses a transformer, diode, and capacitor to effectively convert AC voltage into DC voltage.  Wall warts do much the same thing and in very much the same way.      If you will recall from our discussion of microwave ovens in the past few weeks, the transformer in a high voltage circuit transforms 120 volts into a much higher voltage, say 4000 volts, in order to make things work.  The diode and capacitor within both the microwave and the wall wart are key to facilitating this magical act, but in the wall wart it happens at a much lower voltage, about 12 volts.      Last week we began exploring the inner workings of the wall wart.  We discovered how its transformer converts the 120 volts emanating from your average wall outlet to the 12 volts required by most electronic devices.  These voltages are shown at Points A and B in Figure 1 below.  The fact that the voltage being put out results in waves of energy which alternate between a positive maximum value, zero, and a negative maximum value, makes it an unacceptable power source for most electronic devices.  They require voltage that doesn’t alternate, and this is where the wall wart’s diode bridge and capacitor come into play. Figure 1 – The Workings of the Wall Wart Transformer      The wall wart’s diode bridge consists of four electronic components, namely the diodes, which are connected together.  This diode bridge goes a bit further than the single diode present in a microwave oven, because it doesn’t merely eliminate negative aspects of alternating voltage.  It actually transforms negative voltage into positive voltage.  The result is a series of 12 volt peaks as shown at Point C of Figure 1.  In fact, we end up with twice as many voltage peaks, and this is important, as you’ll see below.      We still have the problem of zero voltage gaps to address.  You see, over time the voltage at Point C of Figure 1 keeps changing between 0 volts and positive 12 volts.  This can lead to problems, because many electronic devices require a consistent voltage of greater than zero to operate properly.  For example, a light emitting diode (LED) might develop an annoying flicker, or you might end up hearing an irritating hum while listening to the radio.  These annoyances are virtually eliminated by feeding voltage from the diode bridge into the capacitor, which gets rid of the zero voltage gaps between the voltage peaks.      Like a microwave’s capacitor, the one within a wall wart charges up with electrical energy as the voltage from the diode bridge nears the top of a peak.  Then, as voltage begins its dive back to a zero value, the capacitor discharges its electrical energy to fill in the gaps between peaks.  The result is the rippled voltage pattern at Point D of Figure 1.  With the gaps filled in, the voltage is at, or close enough to, the 12 volts required to keep an electronic device operating properly when it is connected to the wall wart’s low voltage power cord.      Well, that’s it for our look at the wall warts that power our myriad of electronic devices.  Next time we’ll switch to a totally topic and look at some of the basics of food manufacturing equipment design. ____________________________________________

### Ever Had a Wall Wart?

Sunday, August 28th, 2011

### Electrocution by Microwave Oven

Sunday, August 21st, 2011

### The Microwave Oven — More on How AC Becomes DC

Monday, August 15th, 2011
 The world of electricity is full of mysteries and often unanticipated outcomes, and if you’ve been reading along with my blog series you have been able to appreciate and come to some understanding of a fair number of them.  This week’s installment will be no exception.      Last week we looked briefly at the high voltage circuit within a microwave oven.  We discovered that the circuit contains a transformer that raises 120 volts alternating current (AC) to a much higher voltage, around 4000 volts AC.  The circuit then transforms the AC into direct current (DC) with the help of electronic components known as a diode and capacitor.  Let’s take a closer look at how the diode and capacitor work together to make AC into DC.      Let’s follow an AC wave with the aid of a device called an oscilloscope.  An oscilloscope takes in an electronic signal, measures it, graphs it, and shows it on a display screen so you can see how the signal changes over time.  An AC wave is shown in Figure 1 as it would appear on an oscilloscope. Figure 1 – Alternating Current Wave      You can see that each wave cycle starts with a zero value, climbs to a positive maximum value, then back to zero, and finally back down to a maximum negative value. The current keeps alternating between positive and negative polarity, hence the name “alternating current.”      Within the microwave oven’s high voltage circuitry the transformer does the job of changing, or transforming if you will, 120 volts AC into 4000 volts AC.  This high voltage is needed to make electrons leave the cathode in the magnetron and move them towards the anode to generate microwaves.       But we’re not done with the transformation process yet.  The magnetron requires DC to operate, not AC.  DC current remains constant over time, maintaining a consistent positive value as shown in Figure 2.  It is this type of consistency that the magnetron needs to operate. Figure 2 – Direct Current      The microwave’s diode and capacitor work together to convert the 4000 volts AC into something which resembles 4000 volts DC.  First the diode acts like a one-way valve, passing the flow of positive electric current and blocking the flow of negative current.  It effectively chops off the negative part of the AC wave, leaving only positive peaks, as shown in Figure 3. Figure 3 – The Diode Chops Off The Negative Part of the AC Wave      Between the peaks are gaps where there is zero current, and this is when the capacitor comes into play.  Capacitors are similar to batteries because they can be charged with electrical energy and then discharge that energy when needed.  Unlike a battery, the capacitor charges and discharges very quickly, within a fraction of a second.       Within the circuitry of a microwave oven the capacitor charges up at the top of each peak in Figure 3, then, when the current drops to zero inside the gaps the capacitor comes into play, discharging its electrical energy into the high voltage circuit. The result is an elimination of the zero current gaps.  The capacitor acts as a reserve energy supply to fill in the gaps between the peaks and keep current continually flowing to the magnetron.  We have now witnessed a mock DC current situation being created, and the result is shown in Figure 4. Figure 4 – The Capacitor Discharges to Fill In The Gaps Between Peaks      The output of this approximated DC current looks like a sawtooth pattern instead of the straight line of a true DC current shown in Figure 2.  This ripple pattern is evidence of the “hoax” that has been played with the AC current.  The net result is that the modified AC current, thanks to the introduction of the diode and energy storing capacitor, has made an effective enough approximation of DC current to allow our magnetron to get to work jostling electrons loose from the cathode and putting our microwave oven into action.      You now have a basic understanding of how to turn AC into an effective approximation of DC current.  Next week we’ll find out how this high voltage circuit can prove to be lethal, even when the microwave oven is unplugged. ____________________________________________

### The Microwave Oven High Voltage Circuit—How AC Becomes DC

Sunday, August 7th, 2011
 My mom was a female do-it-yourselfer.  Toaster on the blink?  Garbage disposal grind to a halt?  She’d take them apart and start investigating why.  Putting safety first, she always pulled the plug on electrical appliances before working on them.  Little did she know that this safety precaution would not be enough in the case of a microwave oven.  Let’s see how even an unplugged microwave can prove to be a lethal weapon and, yes, we’re going to have to get technical.      Last week we talked about the magnetron and how it needs thousands of volts to operate.  To get this high of a voltage out of a 120 volt wall outlet–the voltage that most kitchen outlets provide–the microwave oven is equipped with electrical circuitry containing three important components:  a transformer, a diode, and a capacitor, and just like the third rail of an electric railway system these items are to be avoided.  If you decide to take your microwave oven apart and you come into contact with high voltage that is still present, you run the risk of injury or even death.  But how can high voltage be present when it’s unplugged?  Read on.      First we need to understand how the 120 volts emitting from your wall outlet becomes the 4000 volts required to power a microwave’s magnetron.  This change takes place thanks to a near magical act performed by AC, or alternating current.  In the case of our microwave components, specifically its diode and capacitor, AC is made to effectively mimic the power of DC, or direct current, the type of current a magnetron needs.  This transformation is made possible through the storage of electrical energy within the microwave’s capacitor.      Next week we’ll examine in detail how this transformation from AC to DC current takes place, as seen through a device called an oscilloscope. ____________________________________________

### Transformers – Something To Do With The Flux

Sunday, December 19th, 2010

 Aside from the magical manifestation of innumerable top hats and replicate bodies that the movie The Prestige boasts is possible, there are many other fascinating applications of electricity, as we’ll see today.      Last time we learned how George Westinghouse’s chief engineer, William Stanley, developed the first practical transformer for electric utility use.  Now let’s see how it works, as illustrated in Figure 1. Figure 1 – The Basic Electrical Transformer      What we have here is an alternating current (AC) power source.  And much like an electrical generator in a utility power plant, it is connected via power lines to the primary coil wires of a transformer, such as the one which feeds power to your house.  The voltage applied by the source, that is, the power plant, to the primary coil is known as VP, and the electrical current flowing through the primary coil is referred to as IP.      As we learned last week, the continually varying electrical current flowing through the coil creates lines of magnetic flux, which also continually vary.  In our diagram the lines of flux flow around the core of the transformer.  The magnetic flux present in the core then induces AC voltage, or VS, and current, or IS,  to the secondary coil when its wires are connected to something requiring an electrical load to operate.  Some examples would be light bulbs, TV’s, and most appliances found in the average home.      As was mentioned last week, the number of wire turns, or loops, in the secondary coil as compared to the primary coil determine how the transformer will change the voltage that is applied to it.  An example of this phenomenon can be observed in the power lines supplying electricity to our homes.  Voltage from power plants is too high to be introduced into our homes, so transformers convert it to a lower voltage, one which can be used by the myriad of electrical devices we couldn’t live without.      To get an idea of how this voltage changing works, let’s consider Figure 2. Figure 2 – Basic Transformer Example      We can see that the primary coil has 17 turns of wire and the secondary coil has 8.  For purposes of our example and to keep the numbers workable, let’s arbitrarily say that VP = 5 volts AC.  By the way, the power initially coming into the transformer feeding your home is typically measured in the thousands of volts.       Now it’s time to do some math.  Based on this input voltage and the number of wire turns in each coil, what would the voltage be on the secondary coil? As William Stanley discovered, it’s a matter of ratios and algebra, and it works according to this formula: NP ÷ NS = VP ÷ VS      Here NP and NS are the number of turns of wire in the primary and secondary coils, respectively.  So plugging in the numbers we get: 17 turns ÷ 8 turns = 5 volts ÷ VS [(8 turns ÷ 17 turns) x 5 volts] = VS = 2.3 volts      This tells us that the transformer in our example reduces, or “steps down” 5 volts AC to just under half the voltage.   So the transformer changed a higher voltage to a lower voltage.  By the same token, a large utility transformer can be used to reduce transmission line voltage to one which can be used safely within our homes.      Like magic, this mechanism also works in reverse.  For example, you can apply 2.3volts AC to the 8 turn coil and you will get 5 volts AC out of the 17 turn coil, resulting in a “stepping up” of voltage.      But wait a minute.  How can you possibly get more voltage out than you put in?  Next time we’ll find out. _____________________________________________

### Transformers – Alternating Current Does the Trick

Sunday, December 12th, 2010