## Posts Tagged ‘magnitude’

### Torque Formula Symplified

Wednesday, April 2nd, 2014
 Last time we introduced the mathematical formula for torque, which is most simply defined as a measure of how much a force acting upon an object causes that object to rotate around a pivot point.   When manipulated, torque can produce a mechanical advantage in gear trains and tools, which we’ll see later.   The formula is: Torque = Distance × Force × sin(ϴ)       We learned that the factors Distance and Force are vectors, and sin(ϴ) is a trigonometric function of the angle ϴ which is formed between their two vectors.   Let’s return to our wrench example and see how the torque formula works.       Vectors have both a magnitude, that is, a size or extent, and a direction, and they are typically represented in physics and engineering problems by straight arrows.   In our illustration the vector for distance is represented by an orange arrow, while the vector for force is represented by a red arrow.   The orange distance vector has a magnitude of 6 inches, while the red force vector has a magnitude of 10 pounds, which is being supplied by the user’s arm muscle manipulating the nut.   That muscle force follows a path from the arm to the pivot point located at the center of the nut, a distance of 6 inches.       Vector arrows point in a specific direction, a direction which is indicative of the way in which the vectors’ magnitudes — in our case inches of distance vs. pounds of force — are oriented with respect to one another.   In our illustration the orange distance vector points away from the pivot point.   This is according to engineering and physics convention, which dictates that, when a force vector is acting upon an object to produce a torque, the distance vector always points from the object’s pivot point to the line of force associated with the force vector.   The angle, ϴ, that is formed between the two vectors in our example is 90 degrees, as measured by any common, ordinary protractor.       Next we must determine the trigonometric value for sin(ϴ).   This is easily accomplished by simply entering “90” into our calculator, then pressing the sin button.   An interesting fact is that when the angle ϴ ranges anywhere between 0 and 90 degrees, the values for sin(ϴ) always range between 0 and 1.   To see this in action enter any number between 0 and 90 into a scientific calculator, then press the sin button.       For our angle of 90 degrees we find that, sin(90) = 1       Thus the formula for torque in our example, because the sin(ϴ) is equal to 1, simply becomes the product of the magnitudes of the Distance and Force vectors: Torque = Distance × Force × sin(90) Torque = Distance × Force × 1 Torque = Distance × Force       Next time we’ll insert numerical values into the equation and see how easily torque can be manipulated. _______________________________________

### Vectors, Sin(ϴ), and the Torque Formula

Wednesday, March 26th, 2014
 Last time we introduced a physics concept known as torque and how it, together with modified gear ratios, can produce a mechanical advantage in devices whose motors utilize gear trains.   Now we’ll familiarize ourselves with torque’s mathematical formula, which involves some terminology, symbols, and concepts which you may not be familiar with, among them, vectors, and sin(ϴ). Torque = Distance × Force × sin(ϴ)       In this formula, Distance and Force are both vectors.   Generally speaking, a vector is a quantity that has both a magnitude — that is, any measured quantity associated with a vector, whether that be measured in pounds or inches or any other unit of measurement — and a direction.  Vectors are typically represented graphically in engineering and physics illustrations by pointing arrows.   The arrows are indicative of the directionality of the magnitudes involved.       Sin(ϴ), pronounced sine thay-tah, is a function found within a field of mathematics known as trigonometry , which concerns itself with the lengths and angles of triangles.   ϴ, or thay-tah, is a Greek symbol used to represent the angle present between the Force and Distance vectors as they interact to create torque.   The value of sin(ϴ) depends upon the number of degrees in the angle ϴ. Sin(ϴ) can be found by measuring the angle ϴ, entering its value into a scientific calculator, and pressing the Sin button.       We’ll dive into the math behind the vectors next time, when we return to our wrench and nut example and apply vector force quantities. _______________________________________