## Posts Tagged ‘Newton’

### de Coriolis’ Formula to Compute Work and the Newton

Sunday, November 29th, 2015
 Although I’m an engineering expert in the 21st Century, I often have to employ engineering principles that are centuries old.   A case in point is Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis‘ formula to compute work, as set out in his Principle of Work.   We’ll work with  his formula today, and we’ll introduce a unit of measurement used to quantify work known as the Newton.       de Coriolis’ formula to compute work is used to determine the amount of work, that is, the amount of dynamic energy available to influence the movement of an object, and is calculated by the formula, Work = Force × Distance where F represents the force acting upon an object that travels a distance of D.   Force is most often expressed in metric units as kilogram • meter per second2, a wordy expression which is more conveniently referred to as the Newton.       In the image below, F is the force of 178 Newtons exerted by the gardener to push his filled wheelbarrow a distance of 3 meters.   The quantity 178 Newtons was obtained by way of direct personal experience working in my own garden.   I’ve found that it takes approximately 40 pounds of force to push a wheelbarrow loaded with dirt across level ground.   Because one pound of force is equal to 4.45 Newtons, the amount of force I exerted is expressed as, [40 pounds of force] × [4.45 Newtons per pound force] = 178 Newtons Work  =  Force ×  Distance       If 178 Newtons of force is required to push the wheelbarrow a distance of 3 meters, then the work performed is expressed as, Work = 178 Newtons × 3 meters = 534 Newton • meters       Next time we’ll explore the special relationship between work and energy and introduce another unit used to quantify work. Copyright 2015 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________

### The Force of Gravity

Thursday, November 20th, 2014
 Last time we saw how Henry Cavendish built upon the work of scientists before him to calculate Earth’s mass and its acceleration of gravity factor, as well as the universal gravitational constant.   These values, together with the force of gravity value, Fg, which we’ll introduce today, moved scientists one step further towards being able to discover the mass and gravity of any heavenly body in the universe.       According to Newton’s Second Law of Motion, the force of gravity, Fg, acting upon any object is equal to the object’s mass, m, times the acceleration of gravity factor, g, or, Fg = m × g       So what is Fg?  It’s a force at play way up there, in the outer reaches of the galaxy, as well as back home.   It keeps the moon in orbit around the Earth and the Earth orbiting around the sun.   In the same way, Fg keeps us anchored to Earth, and if we were to calculate it, it would be calculated as the force of our body’s mass under the influence of Earth’s gravity.   It’s common to refer to this force as weight, but it’s not quite so simple.       Using the metric system, the unit of measurement most often used for scientific analyses, weight is determined by multiplying our body’s mass in kilograms by the Earth’s acceleration of gravity factor of 9.8 meters per second per second, or 9.8 meters per second squared.       For example, suppose your mass is 100 kilograms.   Your weight on Earth would be: Weight = Fg = m × g = (100 kg) × (9.8 m/sec2) = 980 kg · m/sec2 = 980 Newtons      Newtons?   That’s right.   It’s easier than saying kilogram · meter per second per second.   It’s also a way to pay homage to the man himself.       In the English system of measurement things are perhaps even more confusing.   Your weight is found by multiplying the mass of your body measured in slugs by the Earth’s acceleration of gravity factor of 32 feet per second per second.   Slugs is British English speak for pounds · second squared per foot.   We normally refer to weight in units of  pounds, and in engineering circles it’s pounds force.       For example, suppose your mass is 6 slugs, or 6 pounds · second squared per foot.   Your weight on Earth would be: Weight = Fg = m × g = (6 Lbs · sec2/ft) × (32.2 ft/sec2)= 193.2 Lbs       To avoid any confusion, you could just step on the bathroom scale.       Next time we’ll see how the force of gravity is influenced by an inverse proportionality phenomenon. _______________________________________