## Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part X

Through the ages it’s been common practice to name important discoveries after those who discovered them.  For example, James Watt was a mechanical engineer who improved the steam engine by finding a solution to the problem of steam condensing into water inside the engine, a phenomenon which resulted in the engine cooling and reducing its efficiency.  Thus it was fitting that a metric unit of power, the watt, was named in his honor.  Today we’ll become acquainted with the man behind the naming of the Zener diode, Clarence Zener, and take a look at his contributions with regard to the function of this electrical component.

Last time we began our discussion on electrical components known as diodes and saw how they’re used on circuit paths to govern the flow of current.  The Zener diode is a particular type of diode and a key component in transistorized voltage regulator circuits, as we’ll see later.  For now, let’s see how it works.     The symbol for the Zener diode is almost identical to that of a standard diode, introduced in my previous blog, but the Zener version has a bent line going through it resembling a distorted letter “z.”  See Figure 1.

## Figure 1

Electric current flows through the Zener Diode just as it does through a standard diode.  But when the current flows in reverse, that’s where the similarity ends.  See Figure 2.

## Figure 2

When current tries to flow in the reverse direction, the Zener diode acts as an electrical conductor and allows current to pass through it.  In other words, it doesn’t block current flow as standard diodes do.

At this point, you may be asking, “What’s so special about that?”  Perhaps you’ve made the connection that it behaves no differently than a metal wire.  But that isn’t entirely correct.

You see, when current passes in the reverse direction through the Zener diode, it maintains a constant voltage.  This is called the Zener Voltage and is denoted as VZener.  The significance here is that within the circuit, any electronic component connected across the leads of a Zener diode will be supplied with a constant, unchanging voltage.  Thus the Zener diode works as a voltage regulator, enabling devices connected to it to have smooth, uninterrupted operation at a constant voltage.  It should be noted that this phenomenon only happens when the current flowing through the Zener diode is flowing in reverse.

Next time we’ll look at a basic regulated power supply circuit to see how a Zener diode is incorporated in order to maintain a consistent output voltage.

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