Archive for October 16th, 2011

Food Manufacturing Challenges – HACCP Design Principle No. 1

Sunday, October 16th, 2011
     Imagine a doctor not washing his hands in between baby deliveries.  Unbelievable but true, this was a widespread practice up until last century when infections, followed by death of newborns, was an all-too common occurrence in hospitals across the United States.  It took an observant nurse to put two and two together after watching many physicians go from delivery room to delivery room, mother to mother, without washing their hands.  Once hand washing in between deliveries was made mandatory, the incidence of infection and death in newborns plummeted.

      Why wasn’t this simple and common sense solution instituted earlier?  Was it ignorance, negligence, laziness, or a combination thereof that kept doctors from washing up?  Whatever the root cause of this ridiculous oversight, it remains a fact of history.  Common sense was finally employed, and babies’ lives saved.

     The same common sense is at play in the development of the FDA’s Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) policy, which was developed to ensure the safe production of commercial food products.  Like the observant nurse who played watchdog to doctors’ poor hygiene practices and became the catalyst for improved hospital procedures set in place and remaining until today, HACCP policy results in a proactive strategy where hazards are identified, assessed, and then control measures developed to prevent, reduce, and eliminate potential hazards.

     In this article, we’ll begin to explore how engineers design food processing equipment and production lines in accordance with the seven HACCP principles.  You will note that here, once again, the execution of common sense can solve many problems.

     Principle 1:  Conduct a hazard analysis. – Those involved in designing food processing equipment and production lines must proactively analyze designs to identify potential food safety hazards.  If the hazard analysis reveals contaminants are likely to find their way into food products, then preventive measures are put in place in the form of design revisions.

     For example, suppose a food processing machine is designed and hazard analysis reveals that food can accumulate in areas where cleaning is difficult or impossible.  This accumulation will rot with time, and the bacteria-laden glop can fall onto uncontaminated food passing through production lines.

     As another example, a piece of metal tooling may have been designed with the intent to form food products into a certain shape, but hazard analysis reveals that the tooling is too fragile and cannot withstand the repeated forces imposed on it by the mass production process.  There is a strong likelihood that small metal parts can break off and enter the food on the line.

     Next time we’ll move on to HACCP Principle 2 and see how design engineers control problems identified during the hazard analysis performed pursuant to Principle 1.