## Archive for February, 2016

### Combining the Law of Conservation of Energy and Work-Energy Theorem

Thursday, February 18th, 2016
 It’s not uncommon in my work as an engineering expert to encounter a situation in which I’m missing information.   At that point I’ve got to find a creative solution to working the problem.   We’ll get creative today when we combine the  Law of Conservation of Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem to get around the fact that we’re missing a key quantity to calculate forces exerted upon the falling coffee mug we’ve been following in this blog series.     Last time we applied the Work-Energy Theorem to our mug as it came to rest in a pan of kitty litter.   Today we’ll set up the Theorem formula to calculate the force acting upon it when it meets the litter.   Here’s where we left off,  F × d = –½ × m × v12 where, F is the force acting to slow the progress of the mug with mass m inside the litter pan.   The mug eventually stops and comes to rest in a crater with a depth, d.   The left side of the equation represents the mug’s work expenditure, as it plows through the litter, which acts as a force acting in opposition to the mug’s travel. Kinetic Energy Meets Up With Displacement         The right side of the equation represents the mug’s kinetic energy, which it gained in freefall, at its point of impact with the litter.   The right side is in negative terms because the mug loses energy when it meets up with this opposing force.     Let’s say we know the values for variables d and m, quantities which are easily measured.   But the kinetic energy side of the equation also features a variable of unknown value, v1, the mug’s velocity upon impact.   This quantity is difficult to measure without sophisticated electronic equipment, something along the lines of a radar speed detector used by traffic cops.   For the purpose of our discussion we’ll say that we don’t have a cop standing nearby to measure the mug’s falling speed.     If you’ll recall from past blog discussions, the Law of Conservation of Energy states that an object’s — in this case our mug’s — kinetic energy is equal to its potential energy.   It’s this equivalency relationship which will enable us to solve the equation and work around the fact that we don’t have a value for v1.     We’ll do the math and plug in the numbers next time. Copyright 2016 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog ____________________________________

### Applying the Work-Energy Theorem to Falling Objects

Monday, February 8th, 2016
 So far we’ve applied the Work-Energy Theorem to a flying object, namely, Santa’s sleigh, and a rolling object, namely, a car braking to avoid hitting a deer.   Today we’ll apply the Theorem to a falling object, that coffee mug we’ve been following through this blog series.   We’ll use the Theorem to find the force generated on the mug when it falls into a pan of kitty litter.   This falling object scenario is one I frequently encounter as an engineering expert, and it’s something I’ve got to consider when designing objects that must withstand impact forces if they are dropped.     Applying the Work-Energy Theorem to Falling Objects         Here’s the Work-Energy Theorem formula again, F × d = ½ × m × [v22 – v12] where F is the force applied to a moving object of mass m to get it to change from a velocity of v1 to v2 over a distance, d.     As we follow our falling mug from its shelf, its mass, m, eventually comes into contact with an opposing force, F, which will alter its velocity when it hits the floor, or in this case a strategically placed pan of kitty litter.   Upon hitting the litter, the force of the mug’s falling velocity, or speed, causes the mug to burrow into the litter to a depth of d.   The mug’s speed the instant before it hits the ground is v1, and its final velocity when it comes to a full stop inside the litter is v2, or zero.     Inserting these values into the Theorem, we get, F × d = ½ × m × [0 – v12] F × d = – ½ × m × v12     The right side of the equation represents the kinetic energy that the mug acquired while in freefall.   This energy will be transformed into Gaspard Gustave de Coriolis’ definition of work, which produces a depression in the litter due to the force of the plummeting mug.   Work is represented on the left side of the equal sign.     Now a problem arises with using the equation if we’re unable to measure the mug’s initial velocity, v1.   But there’s a way around that, which we’ll discover next time when we put the Law of Conservation of Energy to work for us to do just that.   Copyright 2016 – Philip J. O’Keefe, PE Engineering Expert Witness Blog     ____________________________________