## Archive for October 7th, 2012

### Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part XII

Sunday, October 7th, 2012

Let’s continue our discussion with regard to the example circuit discussed last time and see how the Zener diode works in tandem with the limiting resistor to control current flow and hold the output voltage at a constant level.

## Figure 1

To recap our discussion from last week, the unregulated power supply portion of the circuit in Figure 1 generates an unregulated voltage, VUnregulated.  Then the Zener diode, which acts as a voltage regulator, takes in VUnregulated and converts it into a steady output voltage, VOutput.  Because these output terminals are connected to the ends of the Zener diode, VOutput  is equal to the voltage put out by it, denoted as VZener.

The Zener diode, an excellent negotiator of current, is essentially involved in a constant trade off, substituting electric current that originates in the unregulated power supply portion of the circuit for voltage, VOutput, that will serve to power the external supply circuit.   In other words, the Zener diode draws as much current, IZ, through it as it needs, its objective being to keep VOutput at a constant level, and it will continue to provide this constant output, despite the fact that VUnregulated varies considerably.

So, where does the current IZ come from?  From IPS, that is, the current flowing from the unregulated power supply area, as shown in Figure 1.

IPS flows through the limiting resistor to a junction within the circuit.  At this junction, IZ splits off from IPS and continues on to the Zener diode, while current I splits off from IPS on its way to the total internal resistance, RTotal, in the external supply circuit.

What this means is that when you add IZ and I together, you get IPS.  Mathematically speaking this is represented as:

IPS = IZ + I

Why solve for IPS?  We’ll see why this is important when we revisit Ohm’s Law next week and gain a fuller understanding of how IPS, VUnregulated, VZener, and RLimiting relate to each other with regard to the Zener diode.

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