Posts Tagged ‘indicator bulb’

Industrial Control Basics – Motor Overload Relay In Action

Sunday, March 18th, 2012

    Last week we explored the topic of thermal expansion, and we learned how the bimetal contacts in a motor overload relay distort when heated.  We also discussed how the overload relay comes into play to prevent overheating in electric motor circuits.  Now let’s see what happens when an overload situation occurs.

motor overload relay

Figure 1


     Figure 1 shows a motor becoming overloaded, as it draws in abnormally high amounts of electric current.  Since this current also flows through the electric heater in the overload relay, the heater starts producing more heat than it would if the motor were running normally.  This abnormally high heat is directed towards the bimetal switch contacts, causing them to curl up tightly until they no longer touch each other and open up.  They will only close again when the overload condition is cleared up and the heater cools back down to normal operating temperature.

     Let’s now take a look at Figure 2 to see how the motor overload relay fits into our example of a conveyor belt motor control circuit.  Once again, the path of electric current flow is denoted by red lines.

motor overload relay

Figure 2


     The circuit in Figure 2 represents what happens after Button 1 is depressed.  That is, the electric relay has become latched and current flows between hot and neutral sides through one of the N.O. contacts along the path of the green indicator bulb, the motor overload relay heater, and the conveyor belt motor.  The current also flows through the other N.O. contact, the Emergency Stop button, Button 2, the electric relay’s wire coil, and the motor overload relay bimetal contacts.  The motor becomes overloaded, causing the overload relay heater to produce abnormally high heat.  This heat is directed towards the bimetal contacts, also causing them to heat up.

industrial control

Figure 3


     In Figure 3 the bimetal contacts have heated to the point that they have curled away from each other until they no longer touch.  With the bimetal contacts open, electric current is unable to flow through to the electric relay’s wire coil.  This in turn ends the magnetic attraction which formerly held the relay armatures against the N.O. contacts.  The spring in the electric relay has pulled the armatures up, causing the N.O. contacts to open, simultaneously closing the N.C. contact. 

     These actions have resulted in a loss of current to the green indicator bulb and electric motor.  The red indicator bulb is now activated, and the conveyor motor is caused to automatically shut down to prevent damage and possible fire due to overheating.  This means that even if the conveyor operator were to immediately press Button 1 in an attempt to restart the line, he would be prevented from doing so.  Under these conditions the electric relay is prevented from latching, and the motor remains shut down because the bimetal contacts have been separated, preventing current from flowing through to the wire coil. 

     The bimetal contacts will remain open until they once again cool to normal operating temperature.  Once cooled, they will once again close, and the motor can be restarted.  If the cause of the motor overload is not diagnosed and its ability to recur eliminated, the automatic shutdown process will repeat this cycle. 

     Next time we’ll see how the overload relay is represented in a ladder diagram.  We’ll also see how switches can be added to the circuit to allow maintenance staff to safely work.



Industrial Control Basics – Emergency Stops

Sunday, February 26th, 2012
     Ever been in the basement when you heard a loud thud followed by a scream by a family member upstairs?  You run up the stairs to see what manner of calamity has happened, the climb seeming to take an eternity.  Imagine a similar scenario taking place in an industrial setting, where distances to be covered are potentially far greater and the dangerous scenarios numerous.

     Suppose an employee working near a conveyor system notices that a coworker’s gotten caught in the mechanism.  The conveyor has to be shut down fast, but the button to stop the line is located far away in the central control room.  This is when emergency stop buttons come to the rescue, like the colorful example shown in Figure 1.

emergency stop pushbutton

Figure 1


     Emergency stop buttons are mounted near potentially dangerous equipment in industrial settings, allowing workers in the area to quickly de-energize equipment should a dangerous situation arise.  These buttons are typically much larger than your standard operational button, and they tend to be very brightly colored, making them stick out like a sore thumb.  This type of notoriety is desirable when a high stress situation requiring immediate attention takes place.  They’re easy to spot, and their shape makes them easy to activate with the smack of a nearby hand, broom, or whatever else is convenient. 

     Figure 2 shows how an emergency stop button can be incorporated into a typical motor control circuit such as the one we’ve been working with in previous articles.

emergency stop button in motor control circuit

Figure 2


     An emergency stop button has been incorporated into the circuit in Figure 2.  It depicts what happens when someone depresses Button 1 on the conveyor control panel.  The N.C. contact opens, and the two N.O. contacts close.  The motor starts, and the lit green bulb indicates it is running.  The electric relay is latched because its wire coil remains energized through one N.O. contact.  It will only become unlatched when the flow of current is interrupted to the wire coil, as is outlined in the following paragraph.  The red lines denote areas with current flowing through them.

     Both Button 2 and the emergency stop button typically reside in normally closed positions.  As such electricity will flow through them on a continuous basis, so long as neither one of them is re-engaged.  If either of them becomes engaged, the same outcome will result, an interruption in current on the line.  The relay wire coil will then become de-energized and the N.O. contacts will stay open, preventing the wire coil from becoming energized again after Button 2 or the emergency stop are disengaged.  Under these conditions the conveyor motor stops, the green indicator bulb goes dark, the N.C. contact closes, and the red light comes on, indicating that the motor is not running.  This sequence, as it results from hitting the emergency stop button, is illustrated in Figure 3.

emergency stop button unlatches electric relay

Figure 3


     We now have the means to manually control the conveyor from a convenient, at-the-site-of-occurrence location, which allows for a quick shut down of operations should the need arise.

     So what if something else happens, like the conveyor motor overheats and catches on fire and no one is around to notice and hit the emergency stop?  Unfortunately, in our circuit as illustrated thus far the line will continue to operate and the motor will continue to run unless we incorporate an additional safeguard, the motor overload relay.  We’ll see how that’s done next time.