## Posts Tagged ‘toaster’

### Transistors – Voltage Regulation Part IV

Sunday, August 12th, 2012
We’ve all popped a circuit breaker sometime in our lives, often the result of making too heavy of an electrical demand in a single area of the house to which that circuit is dedicated.  Like when you’re making dinner and operating the microwave, toaster, mixer, blender, food processor, and television simultaneously.  The demand for current on a single circuit can be taxed to the max, causing it to pop the circuit breaker and requiring that trip to the electrical box to flip the switch back on.

Last time we began our discussion on unregulated power supplies and how they’re affected by power demands within their circuits.  Our schematic shows there are two basic aspects to the circuit, namely, its direct current source, or VDC,  and its internal resistance, RInternal.  Now let’s connect the power supply output terminals to an external supply circuit through which electrical current will be provided to peripheral devices, much like all the kitchen gadgets mentioned above.

## Figure 1

The external supply circuit shown in Figure 1 contains various electronic components, including electric relays, lights, and buzzers, and each of these has its own internal resistance.  Combined, their total resistance is RTotal, as shown in our schematic.

Current, notated as I, circulates through the power supply, through the external supply circuit, and then returns back to the power supply.  The current circulates because the voltage, VDC, pushes it through the circuit like pressure from a pump causes water to flow through a pipe.

RTotal and I can change, that is, increase or decrease, depending on how many components the microprocessor has turned on or off within the external supply circuit at any given time.  When RTotal increases, electrical current, I, decreases.  When RTotal decreases, electrical current I increases.

Next time we’ll continue our discussion on Ohm’s Law, introduced last week, to show how the static effect of RInternal  interacts with the changing resistance present in RTotal to adversely affect an unregulated power supply’s output voltage.

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### The Microwave Oven High Voltage Circuit—How AC Becomes DC

Sunday, August 7th, 2011
 My mom was a female do-it-yourselfer.  Toaster on the blink?  Garbage disposal grind to a halt?  She’d take them apart and start investigating why.  Putting safety first, she always pulled the plug on electrical appliances before working on them.  Little did she know that this safety precaution would not be enough in the case of a microwave oven.  Let’s see how even an unplugged microwave can prove to be a lethal weapon and, yes, we’re going to have to get technical.      Last week we talked about the magnetron and how it needs thousands of volts to operate.  To get this high of a voltage out of a 120 volt wall outlet–the voltage that most kitchen outlets provide–the microwave oven is equipped with electrical circuitry containing three important components:  a transformer, a diode, and a capacitor, and just like the third rail of an electric railway system these items are to be avoided.  If you decide to take your microwave oven apart and you come into contact with high voltage that is still present, you run the risk of injury or even death.  But how can high voltage be present when it’s unplugged?  Read on.      First we need to understand how the 120 volts emitting from your wall outlet becomes the 4000 volts required to power a microwave’s magnetron.  This change takes place thanks to a near magical act performed by AC, or alternating current.  In the case of our microwave components, specifically its diode and capacitor, AC is made to effectively mimic the power of DC, or direct current, the type of current a magnetron needs.  This transformation is made possible through the storage of electrical energy within the microwave’s capacitor.      Next week we’ll examine in detail how this transformation from AC to DC current takes place, as seen through a device called an oscilloscope. ____________________________________________