## Posts Tagged ‘steam and water cycle’

### Vacuum in a Power Plant Condenser

Tuesday, November 5th, 2013
 Last time we discussed the key functions of the make-up valve in the power plant water-to-steam cycle.   Today we’re going to talk about a vacuum.   No, not the kind you use around the house, the kind that’s created by the condenser inside a power plant.       As discussed previously, the condenser is a piece of equipment that turns turbine exhaust steam back into water.   The water that’s formed during this process is known as condensate, and its density is higher than that of the steam it shares space with inside the condenser.   That difference in density is what creates the vacuum inside the condenser vessel.   Put another way, the increase in density along with the condenser’s airtight design prevent air from rushing in from outside to occupy any of the space inside the condenser, a desirable condition from an efficiency standpoint.       But to understand how all this works we’ll first have to gain an understanding of what is meant by density.   A textbook would define it as the mass of a substance divided by the amount of space that that substance occupies.    Let’s take steam and water for example.   One pound of steam at 212°F forms a vapor cloud that occupies 26.78 cubic feet of space.   If we condensed that pound of steam back into water at the same temperature, it would just about fit into a 16 ounce glass and occupy a mere 0.017 cubic feet.       The huge difference in their volumes is due to the fact that steam contains more than five times the heat energy that unheated water does.    That energy makes the molecules in a cloud of steam more active, causing them to collide against each other with great force, spread apart, and occupy a larger space.       If you’re wondering what change in density has to do with vacuum in the condenser, allow me to offer an analogy.   Ever canned any produce, like tomatoes, in glass jars to over-winter?   Not likely, as this once common survival tactic has nearly become a lost art.   But the vacuum created inside the condenser is much like the vacuum created within a mason jar during canning.       Inside the glass mason jar, a small space is intentionally left between the tomatoes and lid.   During the process of boiling, or heat sterilization, this space fills with steam.   Then during cooling the trapped steam condenses into water.   This condensation creates the vacuum that sucks down on the jar’s lid, giving it an airtight seal, a condition which won’t allow bacteria to grow on our canned foods.   You see, like us bacteria need oxygen to live, but thanks to the vacuum inside our cooked mason jar no air containing oxygen will remain inside to harbor it.       Next time we’ll continue our discussion on vacuum to see how it’s used to increase a steam turbine’s efficiency. ________________________________________

### Condensation Inside the Steam Turbine

Sunday, September 8th, 2013

Did you know that water droplets traveling at high velocity can take on the force of bullets?   It can happen, particularly within steam turbines at a power plant during the process of condensation, where steam transforms back into water.

The last couple of weeks in this blog series we’ve been talking about the steam and water cycle within electric utility power plants, how heat energy is added to water during the boiling process, and how turbines run on the sensible heat energy that lies within the superheated steam vapor supplied by boilers and superheaters.   We learned that without a superheater there is a very real possibility that the steam’s temperature can fall to mere boiling point.

When steam returns to boiling point temperature an undesirable situation is created.  The steam begins to condense into water within the turbine.   To understand how this happens, let’s return to our graph from last week.   It illustrates the situation when there’s no superheater present in the power plant’s steam cycle.

## Figure 1

After consuming all the sensible heat energy in phase C in Figure 1, the only heat energy which remains available to the turbine is the latent heat energy in phase B.   If you recall from past blog articles, latent heat energy is the energy added to the boiler water to initiate the building of steam.   As the turbine consumes this final source of heat energy, the steam begins a process of condensation while it flows through the turbine.   You can think of condensing as a process that is opposite to boiling.   During condensation, steam changes back into water as latent heat energy is consumed by the turbine.

When the condensing process is in progress, the temperature in phase B remains at boiling point, but instead of pure steam flowing through the turbine, the steam will now include water droplets, a dangerous mixture.   As steam flows through the progressive chambers of turbine blades, more of its latent heat energy is consumed and increasingly more steam turns back into water as the number of water droplets increases.

## Figure 2 – Water Droplets Forming in the Turbine

The danger comes in when you consider that the steam/water droplet mixture is flying through the turbine at hundreds of miles per hour.   At these high speeds water droplets take on the force of machine gun bullets.  That’s because they act more like a solid than a liquid due to their incompressible state.   In other words, under great pressure and at high speed water droplets don’t just harmlessly splash around.   They hit hard and cause damage to rapidly spinning turbine blades.   Without a working turbine, the generator will grind to a halt.

So how do we supply the energy hungry turbine with the energy contained within high temperature superheated steam in sufficient quantities to keep things going?   We’ll talk more about the superheater, its function and construction, next week.

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